The scale of intervention required to reduce and adapt to the effects of climate change will require action at all levels of government and society. International accords and some federal and state governments are beginning to address greenhouse gas reduction targets, but it is at the local level that most decisions about urban form are made. Yet, urban planners and local decision makers generally lack the tools and means needed to make informed choices about the climate change implications of local growth and redevelopment decisions or to measure the effects of their decisions. While a wide spectrum of tools currently exists, few have the capacity to work simultaneously at both the regional and local scale or to capture the multiple consequences of regulatory decisions. They generally lack the capacity to model the land use- GHG relationship in a way that informs the policy process in real time.
Nicole Miller, Duncan Cavens, Patrick Condon & Ronald Kellett,
Policy, Urban Form, and Tools for Measuring and Managing Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The North American Problem,
U. Colo. L. Rev.
Available at: https://scholar.law.colorado.edu/lawreview/vol80/iss4/5